Gentrification predicted by social media data

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flickr photo by x6e38 shared under a Creative Commons (BY) license

Gentrification – the process by which a deprived area becomes affluent – can be predicted by data from location-specific social media networks.

The Cambridge University study took data from location-specific social media networks, such as Facebook places and Foursquare, to show that the ‘poor to posh’ process can be identified when high levels of deprivation and social diversity are seen to develop in an area.

Data crunch

Predicting gentrification is more than a spike of social media users tweeting about Radio 4 programmes. It is data analysis of social media check-ins which reveal behaviours derived from the particular places that people go.

37,000 users and 42,000 venues in London were used to build a network of Foursquare places and Twitter visitors, totalling half a million check-ins over a ten-month period.

Researchers quantified the social diversity of various areas by distinguishing between places that:

  • brought together strangers versus those brought together friends
  • attracted diverse individuals as opposed to those attracting ‘regulars’

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Landlords profits from unsafe housing in the ‘billions’

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Landlords are making ‘billions of pounds’ from private sector tenants living in homes that fail to meet basic legal housing standards, according to a new report by Citizens Advice and the New Policy Institute (NPI).

Damp and mould, excess cold, rat infestations and pollutants such as Asbestos – the most dangerous ‘category 1 hazards’ – were found in as many as 700,000 privately rented homes in England.

It’s not just low income households vulnerable to renting unsafe housing. 30% of households surveyed reported an annual income of £30,000 and 18% more than £40,000, according to the ‘Paying a high price for a faulty product’ report.

Private renters on the rise

The number of those renting privately is set to increase. Figures by the National Office of Statistics show households in the private sector have risen by 12% in the last decade. Price Waterhouse Cooper (PwC) reports that private rented households will rise to a quarter by 2025 as more people are priced out of home ownership by rising house prices of 5% a year.

Renting in the private sector is the most expensive form of housing yet the poorest in quality. Despite paying significantly more in monthly payments than social housing tenants and home owners, private tenants live in households with a larger number of category 1 hazards. Private rented homes have 5% more category 1 hazards than owner-occupied homes, and three times the number than social rented homes. Average monthly costs for private renters is £765 compared to just £409 for social renters and £664 for home owners paying a mortgage.

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Call for rent ‘refunds’

Campaigners are calling for the Government to provide tenants with the same level of protection seen in consumer law. The recently updated Consumer Rights Act (2015) replaces the Sales of Good Act (1979) and aims to make buying and selling – and redressing complaints – easier. The laws that protect consumers do not translate in housing law, and campaigners want to see this changed.

Citizens Advice is asking for a new housing bill that gives rights such as the ‘right to refund’ in rent when housing problems are ignored. Despite the right to refund proposal being accepted by the government in the current Housing and Planning Bill, rent refunds currently require pursuing through the courts – with tenants footing the bill.

Campaigners say more needs to be done to make rent refunds easier, especially for those not in receipt of housing benefit. Private tenants also need greater protection from ‘retaliation eviction’

License landlords and ‘rogue’ database

Local landlord licenses and a database of ‘worst offenders’ is being considered, alongside the right to refund in the current Housing and Planning Bill. There will be tougher rules to protect tenants from rogue landlords who fail to maintain safe households and new legislation to prevent letting agents from charging extortionate and unnecessary fees in England.

However, there is fear that landlords will respond to increased legislation by selling housing stock and further exasperating the demand for housing in the private housing.

Notes
Citizen Advice Press Release
Citizens Advice Report: Paying a high price for a faulty product 
Link to Housing bill 
Link to Price Waterhouse Cooper report summary