Gentrification predicted by social media data

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Gentrification – the process by which a deprived area becomes affluent – can be predicted by data from location-specific social media networks.

The Cambridge University study took data from location-specific social media networks, such as Facebook places and Foursquare, to show that the ‘poor to posh’ process can be identified when high levels of deprivation and social diversity are seen to develop in an area.

Data crunch

Predicting gentrification is more than a spike of social media users tweeting about Radio 4 programmes. It is data analysis of social media check-ins which reveal behaviours derived from the particular places that people go.

37,000 users and 42,000 venues in London were used to build a network of Foursquare places and Twitter visitors, totalling half a million check-ins over a ten-month period.

Researchers quantified the social diversity of various areas by distinguishing between places that:

  • brought together strangers versus those brought together friends
  • attracted diverse individuals as opposed to those attracting ‘regulars’
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This data was then correlated with London wellbeing indicators, such as lower crime rates and rising house prices.

Lead researcher Desislava Hristova:

“We’re looking at the social roles and properties of places. We found that the most socially cohesive and homogenous areas tend to be either very wealthy or very poor, but neighbourhoods with both high social diversity and high deprivation are the ones which are currently undergoing processes of gentrification.”

In order to measure the social diversity of a given place or neighbourhood, the researchers defined four distinct measures:

  • brokerage (ability of a place to connect people who are otherwise disconnected)
  • serendipity (how a place can induce chance encounters between visitors)
  • entropy (extent to which a place is diverse in respect of its visitors)
  • homogeneity (extent to which visitors to a place are homogenous in characteristics).

In the ‘places’ section, researchers found that particular venues attracted friends where others attracted strangers. Friends were more likely to meet at a fried chicken restaurant, a B&B, a football match or a strip club whereas strangers frequented dumpling restaurants, motels, art museums or gay bars.

Notes
Desislava Hristova et al. ‘Measuring Urban Social Diversity Using Interconnected Geo-Social Networks.’ http://www2016.ca/program-at-a-glance.html.

Blood pressure app downloaded 100,000 times proves inaccurate, study shows

Blood pressure

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A blood pressure app that has been downloaded over 100,000 has been shown to be unreliable, according to a study by John Hopkins University, with just a 20% accuracy rate.

The ‘Instant Blood Pressure’ app claimed to provide an accurate and instant measure of blood pressure when the user placed a SMART phone to their chest.

Results of a study of 85 volunteers using the app under the guidance of health professionals showed that the app missed the warning signs in eight out of ten patients who had high blood pressure.  Continue reading

Male stare and citrus smell increase hand washing by 33%

An experiment to increase staff hand washing in hospitals found that a picture of male eyes placed at eye level increased hand washing by 33%. When this was combined with a citrus scent, the increase rose to as much as 50% more staff washing their hands with anti-bacterial gel before entering a patient’s room.

Psychological priming, or ‘nudges’ were used in the pilot study by researchers to determine the potential impact on hand washing – a significant factor in preventing the spread of infection. Nudges are a concept taken from behavioural science; words, images or signs that prompt behaviour in the observer.  Continue reading

Landlords profits from unsafe housing in the ‘billions’

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Landlords are making ‘billions of pounds’ from private sector tenants living in homes that fail to meet basic legal housing standards, according to a new report by Citizens Advice and the New Policy Institute (NPI).

Damp and mould, excess cold, rat infestations and pollutants such as Asbestos – the most dangerous ‘category 1 hazards’ – were found in as many as 700,000 privately rented homes in England.

It’s not just low income households vulnerable to renting unsafe housing. 30% of households surveyed reported an annual income of £30,000 and 18% more than £40,000, according to the ‘Paying a high price for a faulty product’ report.

Private renters on the rise

The number of those renting privately is set to increase. Figures by the National Office of Statistics show households in the private sector have risen by 12% in the last decade. Price Waterhouse Cooper (PwC) reports that private rented households will rise to a quarter by 2025 as more people are priced out of home ownership by rising house prices of 5% a year.

Renting in the private sector is the most expensive form of housing yet the poorest in quality. Despite paying significantly more in monthly payments than social housing tenants and home owners, private tenants live in households with a larger number of category 1 hazards. Private rented homes have 5% more category 1 hazards than owner-occupied homes, and three times the number than social rented homes. Average monthly costs for private renters is £765 compared to just £409 for social renters and £664 for home owners paying a mortgage.

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Call for rent ‘refunds’

Campaigners are calling for the Government to provide tenants with the same level of protection seen in consumer law. The recently updated Consumer Rights Act (2015) replaces the Sales of Good Act (1979) and aims to make buying and selling – and redressing complaints – easier. The laws that protect consumers do not translate in housing law, and campaigners want to see this changed.

Citizens Advice is asking for a new housing bill that gives rights such as the ‘right to refund’ in rent when housing problems are ignored. Despite the right to refund proposal being accepted by the government in the current Housing and Planning Bill, rent refunds currently require pursuing through the courts – with tenants footing the bill.

Campaigners say more needs to be done to make rent refunds easier, especially for those not in receipt of housing benefit. Private tenants also need greater protection from ‘retaliation eviction’

License landlords and ‘rogue’ database

Local landlord licenses and a database of ‘worst offenders’ is being considered, alongside the right to refund in the current Housing and Planning Bill. There will be tougher rules to protect tenants from rogue landlords who fail to maintain safe households and new legislation to prevent letting agents from charging extortionate and unnecessary fees in England.

However, there is fear that landlords will respond to increased legislation by selling housing stock and further exasperating the demand for housing in the private housing.

Notes
Citizen Advice Press Release
Citizens Advice Report: Paying a high price for a faulty product 
Link to Housing bill 
Link to Price Waterhouse Cooper report summary

Prisoners’ Penfriends improves chance of rehabilitation, study shows

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A recent study of Prisoners’ Penfriends – a charitable scheme that runs a volunteer pen pal programme in 52 prisons – has shown that having a pen pal can contribute to prisoner wellbeing and increase the likelihood of successful rehabilitation.

Researchers Prof Jackie Hodgson and Juliet Horne from Warwick University analysed the impact of the scheme and found that the simple act of being written to and having someone to write back to provided a cheap yet effective method of maintaining moral.

In addition, pen pals could provide an early warning of a prisoner’s decline in mental health. Pen pal confidents became aware of the state of mind of their prison pen pal and were able to alert prison authorities to any increasing depression or risk of suicide.

Professor Jackie Hodgson, leading researcher, commented to Warwick Press:

“We found that something as simple as a pen pal relationship can lead to tangible benefits for prisoners. Given the recent rise in prison violence and suicides, increased prison overcrowding and the current resource pressures on the prison system, letter-writing seems an extremely valuable way to provide greater support for prisoners, based on genuine relationships of care and trust, at remarkably little cost.”

Typical pen pal

The study found that the typical prisoner was male, serving a long term sentences and before the pen pals scheme, had ‘little or no contact with anyone outside of prison’. The effect of having a pen pal helped to reduce their sense of isolation, provided a different focus from their daily routine in prison and also ‘raised their hopes for being outside of prison’.

The Prisoners’ Penfriends scheme matches volunteers with prisoners and delivers post via a PO box to ensure confidentiality. Volunteers are advised to use a fictitious name and exclude personal details such as address and family names to maintain anonymity when writing. Before being matched to a pen pal, volunteers must to agree to follow strict guidelines to ensure relationship boundaries are maintained. All ingoing and outgoing letters are read by prison staff.

The pen pal scheme however has proven to be a life changing relationship for many, with very little cost to implement. One prisoner wrote of his pen friend:

‘He is very helpful and caring and very understanding. He makes me feel like I can achieve things in life. It’s made me want to be a better man when released and achieve my dreams if possible.’

Figures and interesting stats

  • Nearly all prisoners said they intended to remain pen pals for the length of their sentence.
  • The longest pen pal relationship so far has been nine years.
  • The scheme has seen 16,000 letters being sent.

What volunteers say 
What prisoners say 

‘Imagining more than just a prisoner: the work of Prisoners’ Penfriends’.

For more information on the Prisoners’ Penfriends scheme and to sign up to be a volunteer pen pal visit www.prisonerspenfriends.org or email gwyn.morganprisonerspenfriends.org directly.

Excess screen time affects academic achievement, study finds

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According to a new study by Cambridge University, 15 year olds who spend an additional hour watching TV, surfing the web or playing computer screens showed a marked reduction in ability at GSCE level at 16.

In a paper published by the Journal of Behavioural nutrition and physical activity, researchers also found that an additional hour of study or reading improved academic success.

Researchers also analysed whether a link existed between academic success and physical activity. No such link was found.

A team of researchers looked at 845 secondary school children measuring levels of activity and sedentary behaviour at age 14.5 then comparing to their attainment at gcse the next year.

Researchers measured objective levels of activity and time spent sitting as well as asking pupils how long they spent on screens.

The team found that screen time was related to achievement at GCSE. Each additional hour spent on a screen led to 9.3 less points at GCSE level, the equivalent of two grades in a subject (i.e., a  B to a D). Two extra hours was seen to lower points by 18.

The study found that even if students did a lot of reading, screen time still affected achievement. Of all the screen activities, TV watching was the most detrimental.

Dr Esther van Sluijs, from CEDAR:

“We believe that programmes aimed at reducing screen time could have important benefits for teenagers’ exam grades, as well as their health. It is also encouraging that our results show that greater physical activity does not negatively affect exam results. As physical activity has many other benefits, efforts to promote physical activity throughout the day should still be a public health priority.”

 

Notes

Use of TV, internet and computer games associated with poorer GCSE grades

New chip mimics human brain

The neuromorphic chip – so called due to its brain-like processing abilities – has been created on a production-scale in a joint project by IBM and Cornell University.

The new chip acts like a brain, of sorts. Each chip is made up of 5.4 billion transistors with 1 million electronic neurons that talk to each other via 256 synapses.

Today’s world

Today’s computing is based on the computer chip created by John von Neumannover 70 years ago. The humble chip performs two tasks; processing data and holding memory. Just the job for many simple data processing tasks, however, yet not able to perform advanced tasks, such as language or vision.  Continue reading